Publication info:

Science 29 March 2013:
Vol. 339 no. 6127 pp. 1597-1600
DOI: 10.1126/science.1231487

Direct Observations of the Evolution of Polar Cap Ionization Patches

Qing-He Zhang1, Bei-Chen Zhang1, Michael Lockwood2, Hong-Qiao Hu1, Jøran Moen3, J. Michael Ruohoniemi4, Evan G. Thomas4, Shun-Rong Zhang5, Hui-Gen Yang1, Rui-Yuan Liu1, Kathryn A. McWilliams6,2, Joseph B. H. Baker4

1State Oceanic Administration People’s Republic of China Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, China.

2Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Post Office Box 243, RG6 6BB, UK.

3Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.

4Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

5Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886, USA.

6Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

The magazine Science is sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).